The world of physics is an absolutely stunning one as it answers a whole lot of questions about the particles that the world is made up of and much more. It’s time for the physicists all over the world to party hard as four new particles have been discovered at the Large Hadron Collider adding to Higgs Boson Discovery. Can you hear Sheldon screaming?
Hadron Collider and the Discovery of 59 New Particles.
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is situated in Geneva announced that four brand new particles have been discovered making a total of 59 new particles which have been discovered by LHC in addition to the Higgs Boson discovery by Francois Englert and Peter Higgs who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2013. LHC is the world’s largest and highest-energy particle collider built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008. It is a tunnel with a circumference of 17mi and is 175 meters deep beneath the France-Switzerland border near Geneva.
The aim of hadron collider is to allow physicists to test the predictions of the many theories of particle physics, including the Higgs Boson and to search for the family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories and many unsolved questions in the world of physics.
Hadron Collider Found The Missing Piece - Higgs Boson
The hadron collider helped scientists discover the last missing piece, the Higgs boson, in the current best theory of nature called the Standard Model of Particle Physics. This theory describes three of the four known fundamental forces, the electromagnetisms, weak, and strong interactions, and gravitational force, in the universe along with classifying all known elementary particles.
The theory has a troublesome feature that is the description of the strong force which holds the atomic nucleus together. As we know, nucleus is made of protons and neutrons. What we don’t know is that these protons and neutrons are composed of three tiny particles called quarks.
Hadron Collider Is Holding Up Quarks
Quarks are the only elementary particles in the Standard Model of particle Physics to experience all four fundamental forces and are the only known particles whose electric charges not integer multiples of the elementary charge. There are six types of Quarks known as flavours, of quarks: up, down, charm, strange, top and bottom. If the strong force between these quarks was switched off for even a second, all matter would fall into a puddle of quarks immediately. The quantum chromodynamics does describe the interaction between quarks through the strong force by exchanging gluons which are the carriers of electromagnetic force.
When two charged particles are pulled apart, their electromagnetic force weakens, but when two strong quarks are pulled apart, their force just intensifies. Therefore, you will always see that quarks are locked up inside hadrons. Hadrons are particles made up of two or more quarks including protons and neutrons.
Theory of Tetraquarks
In 2003, the Belle experiment discovered a particle that did not fit in anywhere. It therefore, became the first of the many tetraquarks. The particles which have been discovered in March 2021, are all tetraquarks with a charm quark pair and two other quarks. When quarks were first discovered in 1964 by two independent physicists Murray Gell-Man and George Zewig, scientists said that there could be several possible combinations of quarks in theory. This included pairs of quarks and antiquarks (mesons), three quarks (baryons), three antiquarks (antibaryons), two quarks and two antiquarks (tetraquarks) and four quarks and one antiquark (pentaquarks).
All particles in the standard model have antiparticles which are identical to themselves but have an opposite charge. If we were to pull a quark out of a proton, the force that it contains will eventually be strong enough to make a quark-antiquark pair (meson), with the newly created quark going into the proton
Hadron Collider Is Solving The Mystery of New Particles
This hadron collider tells us what the nature considers acceptable as a bound combination of quarks. A mystery about these hadrons is why are they so strongly bound? Some say its because they are compact objects like the proton or the neutron and some say its because they molecules formed by two loosely bound hadrons.
Each time a new hadron is discovered, it tells the scientists something new about the nature’s law and a better description of the most fundamental properties of matter. This helps them to prove the many theories put forward by the many scientists. As we discover new hadrons, we take a step closer in the direction of tuning the models into experimental facts.
Even with all that the hadron collider has achieved, there are some discrepancies that have not been solved yet. The hadron collider is in search for such new particles that would help explain and solve these discrepancies.