Stephen Hawking's most famous theorem about the Black holes has been proven right. His proposition that the Black holes do not shrink over time was proven true by observing the ripple effect in space-time caused by the merging of two distant black holes. The gravitational waves detected from the merger led to confirm that black holes can't decrease in size over time.
The Black Hole Area Theorem
Blackhole mysteries have always played a fascinating part in the portrayal of the Universe. The dark mass that does not even allow light to pass through is present everywhere in the Universe. Our Milky Way galaxy is no exception. We have a supermassive black hole lurking at the center, as suggested during a study pioneered by physicist Stephen Hawking.
In 1971, Stephen Hawking derived an idea from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. The postulate states that the surface area of black holes can’t decrease over time. This principle is tied to the second law of thermodynamics. The law states that the entropy or disorder of a closed system must always increase. A black hole’s entropy is proportional to its surface area, which increases over time. This law appears to set time to run in a particular direction.
Hawking’s most famous theorem has been proven true by observing ripples created by merging two black holes in space-time. The theorem has been derived from Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity that defines gravitational waves and black holes.
Physicists across the globe have been enthralled by this Blackhole theorem that works on a similar principle related to thermodynamics that the entropy cannot decrease but consistently increase over time. The new observations under advanced technology further prove and solidify Einstein’s theory of relativity.
Observing the BLACK HOLES
A black hole is formed from the death of a star with a high gravitational field. The matter is squeezed into the small space, trapping the light of the dead star. The first merging of black holes was detected in 2017. The two initial black holes were 7 and 12 times the sun’s mass, and after merging, it became up to 18 times the mass of the sun.
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors record gravitational signals via the merger of two relatively smaller black holes that started about a billion light-years ago.
In a study pioneered by astrophysicist Maximiliano Isi from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a team of researchers analyzed the gravitational waves resulting from two small black holes merging into one.
They observed the gravitational wave data by the advanced LIGO detectors and divided it into two-time segments: before and after the merging of the black holes. The scientists used this measurement to calculate the surface areas in each segment.
The evaluations showed drastic results in which the total surface area of the merged black hole was greater than the sum of the previous two individual black holes. This observation upholds that the size of black holes does not decrease over time.
Astrophysicist Maximiliano Isi explains this with the evaporation method. He says, “Statistically, over a long period, the law is violated. It’s like boiling water, you’re getting steam evaporating from your pan, but if you only limit yourself to looking at the disappearing water inside of it, you might be tempted to say the entropy of the pan is decreasing. But if you take the steam into account too, your overall entropy has increased. It’s the same with black holes and Hawking radiation.”
However, the real story begins when researchers try to integrate general relativity with quantum mechanics. This gets super ambiguous and conflicting for researchers and scientists. While black holes can never shrink over time according to general relativity, quantum mechanics says the opposite.